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  • Graham Balmforth

Diabetic Retinopathy - what is it?

Updated: Apr 17

Understanding Diabetic Retinopathy: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a potentially serious complication of diabetes that affects the eyes, specifically the retina. As one of the leading causes of blindness among adults, it is crucial for individuals with diabetes to be aware of this condition, its causes, symptoms, and preventive measures.


Diabetic Retinopathy is a result of prolonged high levels of blood sugar associated with diabetes. Over time, these elevated blood sugar levels can damage the small blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. The damaged blood vessels may leak fluid and blood into the retina, leading to vision problems.

Risk Factors:

Several factors increase the risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy:

  1. Duration of Diabetes: The longer an individual has diabetes, the higher the risk of developing DR.

  2. Poorly Managed Blood Sugar: Inadequate control of blood sugar levels increases the risk of DR.

  3. High Blood Pressure: Hypertension can exacerbate the progression of DR.

  4. High Cholesterol Levels: Elevated cholesterol levels may contribute to the development and progression of DR.

  5. Pregnancy: Pregnant women with diabetes should manage their condition carefully to reduce the risk of DR.


In its early stages, Diabetic Retinopathy may not cause noticeable symptoms. As the condition progresses, individuals may experience:

  1. Blurred Vision: Vision becomes less clear and sharp.

  2. Floaters: Dark spots or strings may appear in the visual field.

  3. Impaired Color Vision: Colors may appear faded or different.

  4. Vision Loss: In severe cases, complete vision loss may occur.


While Diabetic Retinopathy cannot always be prevented, there are steps individuals can take to minimize their risk and slow its progression:

  1. Regular Eye Exams: Comprehensive eye exams, at least once a year, can detect DR in its early stages when treatment is more effective.

  2. Blood Sugar Control: Maintaining optimal blood sugar levels is crucial in preventing and managing DR.

  3. Blood Pressure Management: Controlling blood pressure helps protect the blood vessels in the eyes.

  4. Cholesterol Management: Keeping cholesterol levels in check is essential for overall eye health.

  5. Healthy Lifestyle: Adopting a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet, can contribute to overall well-being and eye health.


Several treatment options are available, depending on the severity of Diabetic Retinopathy:

  1. Laser Therapy: Laser treatment can help seal leaking blood vessels and reduce abnormal blood vessel growth.

  2. Intraocular Injections: Medications injected into the eye can slow the progression of the disease.

  3. Vitrectomy: In advanced cases, a surgical procedure called vitrectomy may be necessary to remove blood and scar tissue from the eye.

Diabetic Retinopathy is a serious complication of diabetes that requires attention and proactive management. Regular eye exams, careful blood sugar control, and a healthy lifestyle are essential components of preventing and managing this condition. By staying informed and taking preventive measures, individuals with diabetes can significantly reduce the risk of vision loss associated with Diabetic Retinopathy.

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